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 Differences between the processes - intercountry adoption

Solution

Once you know which process you are eligible to use, you can learn more about what each process will mean for you and your adopted child.

Learn about the requirements and the impacts of each process.

  Adopted person receives a direct grant of citizenship through the citizenship processAdopted person becomes a permanent resident through the immigration process
Status at the end of the process? Canadian citizen Permanent resident
Who can apply? An adoptive parent who is a Canadian citizen at the time of the adoption.

An adoptive parent who is a Canadian citizen; or

an adoptive parent who is a permanent resident.

Fees

If the adopted person is:

  • a minor (under 18 years):
    • processing fee is $100
  • an adult (18 years and over):
    • processing fee is $530
    • right of citizenship fee is $100.

If the adopted person is:

  • under 22 years:
    • sponsorship fee is $75.00
    • processing fee is $75.00
  • 22 years and over:
    • sponsorship fee is $75.00
    • processing fee is $475.00.
Will the adopted person lose their foreign nationality or citizenship after the process?

In some countries, the adopted person could lose their foreign nationality or citizenship once they become a Canadian citizen.

For more information, contact the embassy, High Commission or consulate of the country of the adopted person’s foreign nationality or citizenship.

The adopted person will not lose their foreign nationality or citizenship once they become a permanent resident of Canada.

Is a medical exam needed?

No. However, Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC) recommends that adoptive parents have the child examined by a reliable doctor to know what to expect and what medical attention the child may require.

The doctor should examine the child and provide a comprehensive report to prospective adoptive parents.

Yes. Adoptive parents must provide a written statement to the visa office confirming that they have obtained information regarding the child’s medical condition.

Learn more about medical exams.

What documents will be issued?

The adoptive parents will be mailed the adopted person’scertificate of Canadian citizenship. If the adopted person is 18 years of age or older at the time of the application, it will be sent to them instead of the adoptive parents.

Adopted persons may apply for a Canadian passport once they have been granted citizenship or they may apply for a facilitation visa. If under the age of 18, the adoptive parents would apply on their behalf. This would be placed in the applicant’s home country passport. Note that in some cases, adopted persons (or their adoptive parents, if under 18 years of age) are required to apply for a facilitation visa due to the source country not allowing them to leave the country on a travel document other than their own national passport.

The adopted person will be issued apermanent resident visa before they leave for Canada. It will be placed in the adopted person’s home country passport or travel document. A confirmation of permanent residence document is also issued to the adopted person.

They will receive a permanent resident (PR) card when they arrive in Canada.

How will the adopted person’s children be affected by the new law limiting citizenship by descent to the first generation born abroad?

The first generation limit would not apply to the adopted person’s children if they were born in Canada. As such, they would be Canadian citizens at birth. See the section above entitled:  “The first generation limit to citizenship for adopted persons and exceptions to the limit” for further information. Adopted persons subject to the limit would be required to go through the immigration process.

The first generation limit would not apply to persons where one or both of their parents were, at the time of their birth or adoption, employed outside Canada in or with the Canadian Armed Forces, the federal public administration or the public service of a province, otherwise than as a locally engaged person. As such, they would be Canadian citizens at birth.

The first generation limit would apply to children adopted by the adopted person, and as such they would not be eligible for a direct grant of citizenship unless the other parent was a Canadian citizen by birth in Canada or by naturalization. They would be required to go through the immigration process.

The first generation limit would not apply to the adopted person’s children if they were born in Canada.

The first generation limit would also not apply to the adopted person’s children born abroad if the adopted person was granted Canadian citizenship by way of naturalization and/or the other parent was a Canadian citizen by being born in Canada or through naturalization. As such, they would be Canadian at birth.

The first generation limit would also not apply to children adopted abroad by the adopted person if the adopted person had been granted citizenship through naturalization and/or the other parent of the child was a Canadian citizen by being born in Canada or through naturalization. As such, they would be eligible for a direct grant of citizenship.